Kidney Stones are a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. They are classified by their location in the kidney (Nephrolithiasis), Ureter (Ureterolithiasis). 80% of stones are composed of Calcium but can also be composed of Uric Acid or Struvite. 80% of those with kidney stones are men. Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream.
If a stone grows to a sufficient size then they can cause obstruction of the ureter which can lead to pain. Pain is most commonly felt in the flank, lower abdomen, and groin. Renal colic can be associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination. Renal colic typically begins in the flank and radiates to the groin or genitals. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by obtaining a CT Scan of the abdomen and pelvis.
If a stone does not successfully pass then minimally invasive ESWL can be performed or more invasive Ureteroscopy, Laser Lithotripsy, and Insertion of a Ureteral Stent.