Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum. Compared with other types of cancer, Testicular Cancer is rare. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 34. In the United States, between 7,500 and 8,000 diagnoses of testicular cancer are made each year. The cause of testicular cancer is unknown. One of the first signs of testicular cancer is often a palpable lump or swelling in the testes which may or may not be painful. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates of all cancers: a five-year survival rate in excess of 90 percent overall, and almost 100 percent if it has not metastasized. Even for the relatively few cases in which malignant cancer has spread widely, modern chemotherapy offers a cure rate of at least 80%. Regular testicular self-examinations can help identify growths early, when the chance for successful treatment of testicular cancer is highest. The nature of any palpated lump in the scrotum is often evaluated by scrotal ultrasound which can determine the exact location, size, and some characteristics of the lump, such as cystic vs. solid. The extent of the disease is evaluated by CAT Scans which are used to locate metastases. Blood tests are also used to identify and measure Testicular Tumor Markers (usually proteins present in the bloodstream) that are specific to testicular cancer. Once diagnosed a Radical Orchiectomy (removal of the testicle from the Scrotum) is performed to obtain a pathological diagnosis.